R & R - A community- based nonprofit organization that provides child care resource and referral services, but not child care.
Racism - Discrimination against people based on their skin color or ethnic heritage.
Range - The difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a set of observations; the simplest measure of variability.
Rapid Eye Movements - (REM) A behavioral sign of the phase of sleep during which the sleeper is likely to be experiencing dreamlike mental activity.
Ratification - The confirmation or adoption of a previous act done either by the party himself or by another.
Ratio Decidendi - The ground or reason of the decision in a case.
Rational-Emotive Therapy - A comprehensive system of personality change based on changing irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions such as severe anxiety.
Rationalization - A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which an individual attempts to justify or make consciously tolerable by plausible means, feelings or behavior that otherwise would be intolerable. Not to be confused with conscious evasion or dissimulation. See also projection.
Reaction Formation - A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which a person adopts affects, ideas, and behaviors that are the opposites of impulses harbored either consciously or unconsciously. For example, excessive moral zeal may be a reaction to strong but repressed asocial impulses.
Reaffirmation Agreement - An agreement by a debtor to continue paying a dischargeable debt after the bankruptcy, usually for the purpose of keeping collateral or mortgaged property that would otherwise be subject to repossession.
Real Property - Land, buildings, and whatever is attached or affixed to the land. This usually means the same thing as the words "real estate."
Reality Principle - In psychoanalytic theory, the concept that the pleasure principle, which represents the claims of instinctual wishes, is normally modified by the demands and requirements of the external world.
Reasonable - A level that an ordinary person would be expected to have, e.g. “reasonable care” means the level of care expected from a reasonable person
Reasonable Doubt - An accused person is entitled to acquittal if, in the minds of the jury, his or her guilt has not been proved beyond a "reasonable doubt;" that state of minds of jurors in which they cannot say they feel an abiding conviction as to the truth of the charge.
Reasonable Efforts Requirement - The requirement that a public children services agency or private child placing agency make reasonable efforts to prevent the removal of a child from home, to eliminate the continued removal of the child from home, or to make it possible for the child to safely return home.
Reasonable Person - A phrase used to denote a hypothetical person who exercises qualities of attention, knowledge; intelligence, and judgment that society requires of its members for the protection of their own interest and the interests of others.
Reasoning - The process of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts; thinking directed toward a given goal or objective.
Rebut - Evidence disproving other evidence previously given or reestablishing the credibility of challenged evidence.
Recall - A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to reproduce the information previously presented.
Recency Effect - Improved memory for items at the end of a list.
Receptive Field - The visual area from which a given ganglion cell receives information.
Receptor - A large molecule that recognizes specific chemicals (normally neurotransmitters, hormones, and similar endogenous substances) and transmits the message carried by the chemical into the cell on which the receptor resides.
Recidivism - The continued, habitual or compulsive commission of law violations after first having been convicted or prior offenses.
Reciprocal Altruism - The idea that people perform altruistic behaviors because they expect that others will perform altruistic behaviors for them in turn.
Reciprocal Determinism - A concept of Albert Bandura's sociallearning theory that refers to the notion that a complex reciprocal interaction exists among the individual, his or her behavior, and environmental stimuli and that each of these components affects the others.
Reciprocal Inhibition - In behavior therapy, the hypothesis that if anxiety-provoking stimuli occur simultaneously with the inhibition of anxiety (e.g., relaxation), the bond between those stimuli and the anxiety will be weakened.
Reciprocity Norm - Expectation that favors will be returned-if someone does something for another person, that person should do something in return.
Recognition - A method of retrieval in which an individual is required to identify stimuli as having been experienced before.
Recognizance - An obligation entered into before a court whereby the recognizor acknowledges that he will do a specific act required by law.
Reconstructive Memory - The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation.
Record - A written account of the proceedings in a case, including all pleadings, evidence, and exhibits submitted in the course of the case.
Record Retention - The requirement for all case records to be maintained over a period of time by the CSEA having jurisdiction over the case.
Recuse - The process by which a judge is disqualified from hearing a case, on his or her own motion or upon the objection of either party.
Redemption - A procedure in a Chapter 7 case whereby a debtor removes a secured creditor's lien on collateral by paying the creditor the value of the property. The debtor may then retain the property.
Re-Direct examination - Portunity to present rebuttal evidence after one's evidence has been subjected to cross-examination.
Redress - To set right; to remedy; to compensate; to remove the causes of a grievance.
Referee - A person to whom the court refers a pending case to take testimony, hear the parties, and report back to the court. A referee is an officer with judicial powers who serves as an arm of the court.
Reflex - An unlearned response elicited by specific stimuli that have biological relevance for an organism.
Refractory Period - The period of rest during which a new nerve impulse cannot be activated in a segment of an axon.
Register - To file a support order or judgment with the tribunal of another state.
Registered Mark - Trademark with the words "Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office" or the letter "R" enclosed within a circle.
Registering Tribunal - A tribunal in which a support order is registered.
Regression - Partial or symbolic return to earlier patterns of reacting or thinking. Manifested in a wide variety of circumstances such as normal sleep, play, physical illness, and in many mental disorders.
Rehabilitate - Helping a person recover from drug addiction. Rehabilitation teaches the addict new behaviors to live life without drugs.
Rehearing - Another hearing of a civil or criminal case by the same court in which the case was originally heard.
Reimbursement Ceiling - Amount beyond which the Department of Job and Family Services will not reimburse providers for publicly funded child care; different ceilings may be established based on specified criteria; is established biennially using a market rate survey of amounts charged by child care providers.
Reinforcement - The strengthening of a response by reward or avoidance of punishment. This process is central in operant conditioning.
Reinforcement Contingency - A consistent relationship between a response and the changes in the environment that it produces.
Reinforcer - Any stimulus that, when made contingent upon a response, increases the probability of that response.
Reinforcing - A measure of how driven one is to use a drug after using it the first time.
Rejoinder - Opportunity for the side that opened the case to offer limited response to evidence presented during the rebuttal by the opposing side. (See rebut.)
Relapse - An NA word meaning to become unaddict to abstinence.
Relapse - In general, to fall back to a former condition. Here, resuming the use of a drug one has tried to stop using.
Relative Motion Parallax - A source of information about depth in which the relative distances of objects from a viewer determine the amount and direction of their relative motion in the retinal image.
Relaxation Response - A condition in which muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, and blood pressure decrease and breathing slows.
Reliability - The degree to which a test produces similar scores each time it is used; stability or consistency of the scores produced by an instrument.
Remand - To send a dispute back to the court where it was originally heard. Usually it is an appellate court that remands a case for proceedings in the trial court consistent with the appellate court's ruling.
Remedy - Legal or judicial means by which a right or privilege is enforced or the violation of a right or privilege is prevented, redressed, or compensated.
Remittitur - The reduction by a judge of the damages awarded by a jury.
Removal - The transfer of a state case to federal court for trial; in civil cases, because the parties are from different states; in criminal and some civil cases, because there is a significant possibility that there could not be a fair trial in state court.
Repetition Compulsion - In psychoanalytic theory, the impulse to reenact earlier emotional experiences.
Replacement Volumes - Volumes which replace books and their pocket parts when the pocket parts cause the books to become too bulky.
Replevin - An action for the recovery of a possession that has been wrongfully taken.
Reply - The response by a party to charges raised in a pleading by the other party.
Reporters - Books which contain court decisions.
Representative Sample - A subset of a population that closely matches the overall characteristics of the population with respect to the distribution of males and females, racial and ethnic groups, and so on.
Representativeness Heuristic - A cognitive strategy that assigns an object to a category on the basis of a few characteristics regarded as representative of that category.
Repression - A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, that banishes unacceptable ideas, fantasies, affects, or impulses from consciousness or that keeps out of consciousness what has never been conscious.
Repression - The basic defense mechanism by which painful or guilt-producing thoughts, feelings, or memories are excluded from conscious awareness.
Request for Admission - Also, Request to Admit. Written statements of facts concerning a case which are submitted to an adverse party and which that party must admit or deny; a discovery device.
Request for Production of Documents - A direction or command served upon another party for production of specified documents for review with respect to a suit; a discovery devise.
Res Ipsa Loquitur - Literally, "A thing that speaks for itself." In tort law, the doctrine which holds a defendant guilty of negligence without an actual showing that he or she was negligent.
Res Judicata - A rule of civil law that once a matter has been litigated and final judgment has been rendered by the trial court, the matter cannot be relitigated by the parties in the same court, or any other trial court. A court will use res judicata to deny reconsideration of a matter.
Rescission - The unmaking or undoing of a contract; repeal.
Research - A careful hunting for facts or truth about a subject; inquiry; investigation.
Residential Parent and Legal Custodian - The parent who has been allocated most of the parental rights and responsibilities for the care of a child pursuant to a divorce, dissolution, legal separation, annulment, or child custody proceeding.
Residual Parental Rights, Privileges, and Responsibilities - The rights, privileges, and responsibilities remaining with the parent after transfer of legal custody of the child, including reasonable visitation, consent to adoption, the privilege to determine the child's religious affiliation, and responsibility for support.
Residual Phase - The phase of an illness that occurs after remission of the florid symptoms or the full syndrome.
Residual Stress Pattern - A chronic syndrome in which the emotional responses of posttraumatic stress persist over time.
Resistance - The inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences.
Resolution - The formal adoption of a motion.
Respiratory Center - A small set of nuclei in the brain stem that regulate the speed and depth of breathing ultimately by controlling the muscles that move our chest and diaphragm.
Respondeat Superior - Literally, "A superior must answer." The doctrine which holds that employers are responsible for the acts and omissions of their employees and agents, when done within the scope of the employees' duties.
Respondent - The person against whom an appeal is taken.
Respondent Conditioning - Elicitation of a response by a stimulus that normally does not elicit that response.
Responding State - A state in which a proceeding is filed or to which a proceeding is forwarded for filing from an initiating state.
Responding Tribunal - The authorized tribunal in a responding state. In Ohio, only a trial court of record is authorized to hear UIFSA actions.
Response Bias - The systematic tendency as a result of nonsensory factors for an observer to favor responding in a particular way.
Rest - A party is said to "rest" or "rest its case" when it has presented all the evidence it intends to offer.
Restatement - A publication which tells what the law is in a particular field, as compiled from statutes and decisions.
Resting Potential - The polarization of cellular fluid within a neuron, which provides the capability to produce an action potential.
Restitution - Act of restoring anything to its rightful owner; the act of restoring someone to an economic position he enjoyed before he suffered a loss.
Retainer - Act of the client in employing the attorney or counsel, and also denotes the fee which the client pays when he or she retains the attorney to act for them.
Reticular Formation - The region of the brain stem that alerts the cerebral cortex to incoming sensory signals and is responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep.
Retina - The layer at the back of the eye that contains photoreceptors and converts light energy to neural responses.
Retinal Disparity - The displacement between the horizontal positions of corresponding images in the two eyes.
Retrieval - The recovery of stored information from memory.
Retrieval Cues - Internally or externally generated stimuli available to help with the retrieval of a memory.
Return - A report to a judge by police on the implementation of an arrest or search warrant. Also, a report to a judge in reply to a subpoena, civil or criminal.
Reuptake - The process by which neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse by being "pumped" back into the axon terminals that first released them.
Reuptake Pump - The large molecule that actually transports neurotransmitter molecules back into the axon terminals that released them.
Reversal Theory - Theory that explains human motivation in terms of reversals from one to the other opposing metamotivational states.
Reverse - An action of a higher court in setting aside or revoking a lower court decision.
Reverse - The act of a court setting aside the decision of a lower court. A reversal is often accompanied by a remand to the lower court for further proceedings.
Reversible Error - A procedural error during a trial or hearing sufficiently harmful to justify reversing the judgment of a lower court.
Review and Adjustment - The act of re-examining a support order for possible changes to that order. Also known as a modification.
Revised Uniform Reciprocal Enforcement of Support Act - The act addressing interstate enforcement of support orders adopted in 1968 by the National Conference of Commissioners on uniform state laws or any law substantially similar to the act adopted by another state.
Revocable Trust - A trust that the grantor may change or revoke.
Revoke - To cancel or nullify a legal document.
Reward - The process that reinforces behavior. It is mediated at least in part by the release of dopamine into the nucleus accumbens. Human subjects report that reward is associated with feelings of pleasure.
RIA - Radioimmunoassay. It is common system used for detecting drug use from urine samples.
Right of Way - The right of a party to pass over the land of another.
Ritalin - A form of amphetamine used paradoxically to help hyperactive children.
Ritual Healing - Ceremonies that infuse special emotional intensity and meaning into the healing process.
Robbery - Felonious taking of another's property, from his or her person or immediate presence and against his or her will, by means of force or fear.
Robinson-Patman Act - An amendment to the Clayton Act which deals with price discrimination.
Rock - A small amount of crack cocaine in a solid form; free-base cocaine in solid form.
Rods - Photoreceptors concentrated in the periphery of the retina that are most active in dim illumination; rods do not produce sensation of color.
Roll - When a vein moves to the side as it is being injected into so that the needle does not enter the vein.
Route of Administration - The way a drug is put into the body. Eating, drinking, inhaling, injecting, snorting, smoking, and absorbing a drug through mucous membranes a route of administration used to consume drugs of abuse.
Roxicodone - Unadulterated oxycodone.
Rules - Behavioral guidelines for acting in certain ways in certain situations.
Rules - Established standards, guides, or regulations set up by authority.
Rules of Evidence - Standards governing whether evidence in a civil or criminal case is admissible.
Rush - Intense feelings of euphoria a drug produces when it is first consumed. Drug users who inject or smoke drugs describe their rush as being sometimes as intense, or even more intense, than sexual orgasm.