Oath - To swear to tell the truth
Object Permanence - The recognition that objects exist independently of an individual's action or awareness; an important cognitive acquisition of infancy.
Object Relations - The emotional bonds between one person and another, as contrasted with interest in and love for the self; usually described in terms of capacity for loving and reacting appropriately to others.
Objection - The process by which one party takes exception to some statement or procedure. An objection is either sustained (allowed) or overruled by the judge.
Objection to Dischargeability - A trustee's or creditor's objection to the debtor being released from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Common reasons include allegations that the debt to be discharged was incurred by false pretenses or that debt arose because of the debtor's fraud while acting as a fiduciary.
Objection to Exemptions - A trustee's or creditor's objection to the debtor's attempt to claim certain property as exempt from liquidation by the trustee to creditors.
Obligee - The person who is entitled to receive support payments under a support order.
Obligor - The person who is required to pay support under a support order.
Observational Learning - The process of learning new responses by watching the behavior of another.
Observer Bias - The distortion of evidence because of the personal motives and expectations of the viewer.
Obsession - An unpleasant or nonsensical thought which intrudes into a person's mind, despite a degree of resistance by the person who recognises the thought as pointless or senseless, but nevertheless a product of their own mind. Obsessions may be accompanied by compulsive behaviours which serve to reduce the associated anxiety.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - (OCD) A mental disorder characterized by obsessions-recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses that recur or persist despite efforts to suppress them-and compulsions-repetitive, purposeful acts performed according to certain rules or in a ritualized manner.
Occipital Lobe - Rearmost region of the brain; contains primary visual cortex.
Occupational Safety and Health Act - (OSHA) A federal law designed to develop and promote occupational safety and health standards.
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission - The agency was established by OSHA to adjudicate enforcement actions under the Act.
OCS - Office of Child Support, Ohio Department of Job and Family Services. The Office of Child Support is the single state agency that has the responsibility for administration and supervision of the State Plan of the IV-D program in Ohio.
OCSE - Office of Child Support Enforcement, Administration for Children and Families, Department of Health and Human Services, the federal office with the responsibility for the administration of the IV-D program.
ODJFS - Ohio Department of Jobs and Family Services.
Oedipal Stage - Overlapping some with the phallic stage, this phase (ages 4 to 6) represents a time of inevitable conflict between the child and parents. The child must desexualize the relationship to both parents in order to retain affectionate kinship with both of them. The process is accomplished by the internalization of the images of both parents, thereby giving more definite shape to the child's personality. With this internalization largely completed, the regulation of self-esteem and moral behavior comes from within.
Oedipus Complex - Attachment of the child to the parent of the opposite sex, accompanied by envious and aggressive feelings toward the parent of the same sex. These feelings are largely repressed (i.e., made unconscious) because of the fear of displeasure or punishment by the parent of the same sex. In its original use, the term applied only to the boy or man.
Of Counsel - A phrase commonly applied to counsel employed to assist in the preparation or management of the case, or its presentation on appeal, but who is not the principal attorney for the party.
Official Reports - The publication of cumulated court decisions of state or federal courts in advance sheets and bound volumes as provided by statutory authority.
Ohio Administrative Code - (OAC) Procedural and regulatory rules which facilitate the implementation of Ohio law by governmental agencies.
Ohio Revised Code - (ORC) Statutory and regulatory law of Ohio as opposed to court-mandated common law. ORC also codifies common law.
Ohio Works First - (OWF) A benefit program of Ohio to divert IV-A clients into jobs which will promote skills as well as bring monetary benefits to the client.
Olfactory Bulb - The center where odor-sensitive receptors send their signals, located just below the frontal lobes of the cortex.
Olfactory Hallucination - A hallucination involving the perception of odor, such as of burning rubber or decaying fish.
Olmstead Decision - A U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that a state must provide community-based services to mentally disabled persons if the state has sufficient resources after taking the needs of other persons with mental disabilities into account (Olmstead v. L.C. by Zimring (1999), 528 U.S. 581)
On A Person's Own Recognizance - Release of a person from custody without the payment of any bail or posting of bond, upon the promise to return to court.
One and One - Heroin and cocaine sold together in a single bag.
Ontogenetic - Pertaining to the development of the individual.
Open Adoption - An adoption in which the birth parent and prospective adoptive parent agree to the terms of the adoption; in Ohio adoptions, those terms are voluntary and not legally enforceable.
Opening Statement - The initial statement made by attorneys for each side, outlining the facts each intends to establish during the trial.
Open-label Study - A study in which both doctor and patient know that patients are receiving an experimental drug and what that drug is.
Operant - Behavior emitted by an organism that can be characterized in terms of the observable effects it has on the environment.
Operant Conditioning - A process by which the results of the person's behavior determine whether the behavior is more or less likely to occur in the future.
Operant Extinction - When a behavior no longer produces predictable consequences, its return to the level of occurrence it had before operant conditioning.
Operational Definition - A definition of a variable or condition in terms of the specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence.
Opiate Receptors - Receptors that recognize both opiates and endogenous opioids. When activated, they slow down or inhibit the activity of neurons on which they reside.
Opiates - Any of the psychoactive drugs that originate from the opium poppy or that have a chemical structure like the drugs derived from opium.
Opinion - A judge's written explanation of a decision of the court or of a majority of judges. A dissenting opinion disagrees with the majority opinion because of the reasoning and/or the principles of law on which the decision is based.
Opioid - Any chemical that has opiate-like effects; commonly used to refer to endogenous neurochemicals that activate opiate receptors.
Opium - The dried juice from an unripe seed pod of the flower Papaver somniferum. The word "opium" is thrown around very loosely but the definition is very specific.
Opponent-Process Theory - The theory that all color experiences arise from three systems, each of which includes two "opponent" elements (red versus green, blue versus yellow, and black versus white).
Optic Nerve - The axons of the ganglion cells that carry information from the eye toward the brain.
Oral Argument - An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions.
Oral Stage - The earliest of the stages of infantile psychosexual development, lasting from birth to 12 months or longer. Usually subdivided into two stages: the oral erotic, relating to the pleasurable experience of sucking; and the oral sadistic, associated with aggressive biting. Both oral eroticism and sadism continue into adult life in disguised and sublimated forms, such as the character traits of demandingness or pessimism. Oral conflict, as a general and pervasive influence, might underlie the psychological determinants of addictive disorders, depression, and some functional psychotic disorders.
Order - Direction (written or oral) of a court
Order Number - The non-custodial parent or absent parent's judicial order (usually begins with a "D" for Domestic Relations Court, "J" or "SU" for Juvenile Court) or administrative (begins with a "P") order number.
Ordinance - A rule established by authority; may be a municipal statute of a city council, regulating such matters as zoning, building, safety, matters of municipality, etc.
Organic Solvents - One class of inhalants that includes substances such as gasoline, paint thinner, and glue. Organic solvents are neurotoxic because they dissolve fatty substances, including the axon's myeline sheath.
Organismic Variables - The inner determinants of an organism's behavior.
Organizational Psychologists - Psychologists who study various aspects of the human work environment, such as communication among employees, socialization or enculturation of workers, leadership, job satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life.
Orientation - Awareness of one's self in relation to time, place, and person.
Orientation Constancy - The ability to perceive the actual orientation of objects in the real world despite their varying orientation in the retinal image.
Out-Groups - The groups with which people do not identify.
Outpatient Treatment - Nonresidential treatment for drug addiction. Patients live at home, often work, and come to a clinic for treatment.
Overcompensation - A conscious or unconscious process in which a real or imagined physical or psychological deficit generates exaggerated correction. Concept introduced by Adler.
Overdetermination - The concept of multiple unconscious causes of an emotional reaction or symptom.
Overdose - The condition that results when too much of a drug is taken, making a person sick or unconscious and sometimes resulting in death.
Overregularization - A grammatical error, usually appearing during early language development, in which rules of the language are applied too widely, resulting in incorrect linguistic forms.
Overrule - A judge's decision not to allow an objection. Also, a decision by a higher court finding that a lower court decision was in error.
Overvalued Idea - An unreasonable and sustained belief that is maintained with less than delusional intensity (i.e., the person is able to acknowledge the possibility that the belief may not be true). The belief is not one that is ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture
OWF - (Ohio Works First) A time-limited, income maintenance program for low- income families with children that is operated with federal, state, and county funds; replaced the Aid to Dependent Children program.
Oxycodone - A semi-synthetic morphine derivative, about half as potent.
Oxymorphone - A semi-synthetic morphine derivative, about ten times as potent.