Nalbuphine - A narcotic agonist/antagonist.
Nalorphine - A narcotic antagonist derived from morphine.
Naloxone - A short-acting opiate antagonist that binds to opiate receptors and blocks them, preventing opiates from binding to these receptors. Naloxone is used to treat opiate overdoses.
Naltrexone - A long-lasting opiate antagonist used for the treatment of heroin addiction, and more recently used for the treatment of alcohol addiction.
Narcan - Naloxone.
Narcolepsy - A sleep disorder characterized by an irresistible compulsion to sleep during the daytime.
National Labor Relations Board - (NLRB) A federal agency which prevents and remedies unfair labor practices by employers and labor organizations
National Medical Support Order - (NMSN) Federally required form that all state IV-D child support agencies use to enforce medical support orders for children. It is required for all employment based insurance coverage and is generated and sent to employers in response to the New Hire Reporting process or through alternate means. It constitutes a Qualified Medical Child Support Order and meets other requirements.
Natural Person - An individual – as opposed to a company or partnership
Natural Selection - Darwin's theory that favorable adaptations to features of the environment allow some members of a species to reproduce more successfully than others.
Naturalization - Process by which a person acquires nationality after birth and becomes entitled to privileges of citizenship.
Nature-Nurture Controversy - The debate concerning the relative importance of heredity (nature) and learning or experience (nurture) in determining development and behavior.
Need for Achievement - An assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking.
Negative Reinforcement - A behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, increasing the probability of that behavior.
Negative Symptoms - Most commonly refers to a group of symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia that include loss of fluency and spontaneity of verbal expression, impaired ability to focus or sustain attention on a particular task, difficulty in initiating or following through on tasks, impaired ability to experience pleasure to form emotional attachment to others, and blunted affect.
Negativism - Opposition or resistance, either covert or overt, to outside suggestions or advice. May be seen in schizophrenia.
Neglected Child - A child to whom any of the following applies: is abandoned by the parents; lacks adequate care because of the faults or habits of the parents; whose parents neglect the child or refuse to provide proper or necessary subsistence, education, medical or surgical care or treatment, or other necessary care.
Negligence - Failure to use care which a reasonable and prudent person would use under similar circumstances.
Negotiation - The process of submission and consideration of offers until an acceptable offer is made and accepted.
Nembutal - (pentobarbital) A depressant drug of the barbiturate family used to induce sleep.
Neologism - A new word or condensed combination of several words coined by a person to express a highly complex idea not readily understood by others.
Neural Substrate - The set of brain structures that underlies specific behaviors or psychological states.
Neurochemicals - Neurotransmitters and other brain chemicals produced by neurons.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome - A syndrome ascribed to neuroleptics. The syndrome includes hyperpyrexia, autonomic instability and muscular rigidity.
Neuromodulator - Any substance that modifies or modulates the activities of the postsynaptic neuron.
Neuron - Nerve cell. Neurons are unique cells found in the brain and body that are specialized to process and transmit information.
Neuropathic Pain - Pain caused by abnormal functioning or overactivity of nerves; it results from injury or disease of nerves.
Neuroscience - The scientific study of the brain and of the links between brain activity and behavior.
Neurotic Disorders - Mental disorders in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does experience subjective distress.
Neurotoxins - Substances that damage or kill neurons.
Neurotransmission - The process that occurs when a neuron releases neurotransmitters to communicate with another neuron across the synapse.
Neurotransmitter - Chemicals produced by neurons to carry their messages to other neurons.
New Hires Directory - The database of persons hired, rehired, or returning to work who reside, work, or will be assigned to work in Ohio that is maintained by the Department of Job and Family Services as part of the Support Enforcement Tracking System.
Next Friend - One acting without formal appointment as guardian for the benefit of an infant, a person of unsound mind not judicially declared incompetent, or other person under some disability.
Nicotine - The drug in tobacco that is addictive. Nicotine also activates a specific kind of acetylcholine receptor.
Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor - One of two acetylcholine receptors. This one responds to nicotine as well as acetylcholine.
Nihilistic Delusion - The delusion of nonexistence of the self or part of the self, or of some object in external reality.
Nitrous Oxide - An inhalant, also known as "laughing gas." Nitrous oxide is a weak anesthetic that does not produce unconsciousness.
No Bill - This phrase, endorsed by a grand jury on the written indictment submitted to it for its approval, means that the evidence was found insufficient to indict.
No-Asset Case - A Chapter 7 case in which there are no assets available to satisfy any portion of the creditors' unsecured claims.
Nociceptive Pain - Pain induced by a noxious external stimulus; specialized nerve endings in the skin send this pain message from the skin, through the spinal chord, into the brain.
No-Contest Clause - Language in a will that provides that a person who makes a legal challenge to the will's validity will be disinherited.
No-Fault Proceedings - A civil case in which parties may resolve their dispute without a formal finding of error or fault.
Nolo Contendere - No contest. A plea of nolo contendere has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose.
Non Compos Mentis - Not of sound mind; insane.
Nonconscious - Information not typically available to consciousness or memory.
Non-Custodial Parent - (NCP) The parent who does not have legal custody of the child and who is responsible for payment of child support.
Nondischargeable Debt - A debt that cannot be eliminated in bankruptcy. Examples include a home mortgage, debts for alimony or child support, certain taxes, debts for most government funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit overpayments, debts arising from death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, and debts for restitution or a criminal fine included in a sentence on the debtor's conviction of a crime.
Nonexempt Assets - Property of a debtor that can be liquidated to satisfy claims of creditors.
Nonfeasance - Nonperformance of an act which should be performed; omission to perform a required duty or total neglect of duty.
Non-IV-D Case - A case where the absent parent pays an administrative or court ordered support amount to the CSEA which, in turn, issues a check to the custodial parent, who has chosen not to complete a IV-D application and is not receiving OWF benefits. The CSEA acts as a fiscal agent for disbursing those payments.
Non-IV-D Orders - Orders entered in privately enforced child support cases.
Nonjury Trial - Trial before the court but without a jury.
Non-REM Sleep - (NREM) The period during which a sleeper does not show rapid eye movement; characterized by less dream activity than REM sleep.
Nonresidential Parent - The parent who has not been allocated most of the parental rights and responsibilities for the care of a child pursuant to a divorce, dissolution, legal separation, annulment, or child custody proceeding; the parent who is not the residential parent
Norepinephrine - A neurotransmitter and a hormone. It is released by the sympathetic nervous system onto the heart, blood vessels, and other organs and by the adrenal gland into the bloodstream as part of the fight-or-flight response. Norepinephrine is also present in the brain and is used as a neurotransmitter in normal brain processes.
Norm Crystallization - The convergence of the expectations of a group of individuals into a common perspective as they talk and carry out activities together.
Normal Curve - The symmetrical curve that represents the distribution of scores on many psychological attributes; allows researchers to make judgments of how unusual an observation or result is.
Normative Influence - Group effects that arise from individuals' desire to be liked, accepted, and approved of by others.
Normative Investigations - Research efforts designed to describe what is characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage.
Norms - Standards based on measurements of a large group of people; used for comparing the scores of an individual with those of others within a well-defined group.
Noscapine - An opium alkaloid used as an antitussive.
Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity - The jury or the judge must determine that the defendant, because of mental disease or defect, could not form the intent required to commit the offense.
Not Guilty Plea - Complete denial of guilt. In criminal cases, a necessary stage of the proceedings required to preserve all legal issues.
Notary Public - A public officer whose function it is to administer oaths, to attest and certify documents, and to take acknowledgments.
Notice - Formal notification to the party that has been sued in a civil case of the fact that the lawsuit has been filed. Also, any form of notification of a legal proceeding.
Notice to Creditors - A notice given by the bankruptcy court to all creditors of a meeting of creditors.
Nucleus - A cluster or group of nerve cells that is dedicated to performing its own special function(s). Nuclei are found in all parts of the brain except the cerebral cortex, where such groups are called cortical fields.
Nucleus Accumbens - A part of the brain reward system, located in the limbic system, that processes information related to motivation and reward. It is the key brain site where virtually all drugs of abuse act to reinforce drug taking.
Numorphan - Oxymorphone.
Nuncupative Will - An oral (unwritten) will.
Nystagmus - Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes that consist of small-amplitude~ rapid tremors in one direction and a larger, slower, recurrent sweep in the opposite direction. Nystagmus may be horizontal, vertical, or rotary.