Easement - A right given to one person to enter the property of another without having to ask permission each time – for example, the telephone/cable lines going into your home are an easement right
Echoic Memory - Sensory memory that allows auditory information to be stored for brief durations.
Echolalia - A speech disorder in which the person inappropriately and automatically repeats the last words he or she has heard. Palilalia is a form of echolalia in which the last syllable heard is repeated endlessly.
Echopraxia - A movement disorder in which the person automatically and inappropriately imitates or mirrors the movements of another.
Ecstasy - (MDMA) A chemically modified amphetamine that has hallucinogenic as well as stimulant properties.
Early Intervention - Services for children from birth through age two.
Ego - The aspect of personality involved in self-preservation activities and in directing instinctual drives and urges into appropriate channels.
Ego Defense Mechanisms - Mental strategies (conscious or unconscious) used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in the normal course of life.
Ego Ideal - The part of the personality that comprises the aims and goals for the self; usually refers to the conscious or unconscious emulation of significant figures with whom one has identified. The ego ideal emphasizes what one should be or do in contrast to what one should not be or not do.
Egocentrism - In cognitive development, the inability of a young child at the preoperational stage to take the perspective of another person.
Ego-Dystonic - Referring to aspects of a person's behavior, thoughts, and attitudes that are viewed by the self as repugnant or inconsistent with the total personality.
Eidetic Image - Unusually vivid and apparently exact mental image; may be a memory, fantasy, or dream.
Elaboration - An unconscious process consisting of expansion and embellishment of detail, especially with reference to a symbol or representation in a dream.
Elaboration Likelihood model - A theory of persuasion that defines how likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaborate upon a message and therefore follow the central and peripheral routes to persuasion.
Elaborative Rehearsal - A technique for improving memory by enriching the encoding of information.
Electroconvulsive Therapy - (ECT) The use of electroconvulsive shock as an effective treatment for severe depression.
Electroencephalogram - (EEG) A recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
Electronic Data Interchange -(EDI) Process by which information regarding an Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) transaction is transmitted electronically along with the EFT funds transfer.
Electronic Funds Transfer - (EFT) Process by which money is transmitted electronically from one bank account to another.
Elements of a Crime - Specific factors that define a crime which the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt in order to obtain a conviction: (1) that a crime has actually occurred, (2) that the accused intended the crime to happen, and (3) a timely relationship between the first two factors.
Elevated Mood - An exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation. A person with elevated mood may describe feeling "high," "ecstatic," "on top of the world," or "up in the clouds."
Emancipation - The act of a minor child legally attaining independence. This can be obtained by age, marriage, entrance into the armed services, or decree of the court.
Embezzlement - The fraudulent appropriation by a person to his own use or benefit or property or money entrusted to him by another.
Eminent Domain - The power of the government to take private property for public use through condemnation.
EMIT - An acronym for "enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique." It is common system used for detecting drug use from urine samples.
Emotion - A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant.
Emotional Intelligence - Type of intelligence defined as the abilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotions accurately and appropriately, to use emotions to facilitate thinking, to understand and analyze emotions, to use emotional knowledge effectively, and to regulate one's emotions to promote both emotional and intellectual growth.
Empathy - The ability to identify with or vicariously experience the feelings, thoughts, situation, or attitude of another individual.
Empowerment - An increase in perceived self-efficacy, resulting from a belief in the ability to positively influence ones’ environment and improve personal circumstances.
Empowerment-Oriented Practice - A paradigm of social work practice that addresses power inequities on organizational, political, and personal levels by emphasizing client strengths, increasing self-efficacy, encouraging advocacy, safeguarding self- determinism and delivering education in the form of a collaborative and egalitarian helping relationship.
En Banc - All the judges of a court sitting together. Appellate courts can consist of a dozen or more judges, but often they hear cases in panels of three judges. If a case is heard or reheard by the full court, it is heard en banc.
Enabling - Things that people who are close to addicts do unconsciously that either encourage, or at least do not interfere with, the addict's drug use.
Encoding - The process by which a mental representation is formed in memory.
Encoding Specificity - The principle that subsequent retrieval of information is enhanced if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those present at the time of encoding.
Encumbrance - This is a claim on your property title – for example, a mortgage
Encyclopedia - A book or series of books arranged alphabetically by topics containing information on areas of law, including citations to support the information.
Endocarditis - A bacterial infection of the inner lining of the heart.
Endocrine System - The network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Endogenous - Something produced by the brain or body.
Endorphins - Peptides with opiate-like effects that are made by neurons and used as neurotransmitters; one of the endogenous opioids that binds to opiate receptors.
Enforcement - Methods to ensure payment of the obligation by the obligor.
Engram - The physical memory trace for information in the brain.
Enjoin - To order a person to perform, or to abstain and desist from performing a specified act or course of conduct. See injunction.
Enkephalins - Peptides with opiate-like effects that are made by neurons and used as neurotransmitters; one of the endogenous opioids that binds to opiate receptors.
Entity - A person or legally recognized organization.
Entrapment - The act of inducing a person to commit a crime so that a criminal charge will be brought against him.
Entry - A statement of conclusion reached by the court and placed in the court record.
Environment - The conditions, influences, or forces which affect the desirability and value of property, as well as the effect on people's lives.
Environmental Protection Agency - A federal agency created to permit coordinated and environment effective governmental action to preserve the quality of the environment.
Environmental Variables - External influences on behavior.
Enzyme - A large molecule that living organisms use to facilitate the transition from one form of a chemical to another. Enzymes are used to build, modify, or break down different molecules.
Epigenesis - The theory that the embryo is not preformed in the ovum or the sperm, but that it develops gradually by the successive formation of new parts.
Episodic Memories - Long-term memories for autobiographical events and the contexts in which they occurred.
EQ - The emotional intelligence counterpart of IQ.
Equal Protection of the Law - The guarantee in the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that all persons be treated equally by the law.
Equitable - Pertaining to civil suits in "equity" rather than in "law." In English legal history, the courts of "law" could order the payment of damages and could afford no other remedy (see damages). A separate court of "equity" could order someone to do something or to cease to do something (e.g., injunction). In American jurisprudence, the federal courts have both legal and equitable power, but the distinction is still an important one. For example, a trial by jury is normally available in "law" cases but not in "equity" cases.
Equitable Action - An action which may be brought for the purpose of restraining the threatened infliction of wrongs or injuries, and the prevention of threatened illegal action.
Equity - Justice administered according to fairness; the spirit or habit of fairness in dealing with other persons.
Equity - The value of a debtor's interest in property that remains after liens and other creditors' interests are considered. (Example: If a house valued at $60,000 is subject to a $30,000 mortgage, there is $30,000 of equity.) - Evidence - Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case in favor of one side or the other.
Equity Theory - A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates that equitable relationships are those in which the participants' outcomes are proportional to their inputs.
Equity Courts - Courts which administer a legal remedy according to the system of equity, as distinguished from courts of common law.
Erogenous Zones - Areas of the skin surface that are especially sensitive to stimulation and that give rise to erotic or sexual sensations.
Escheat - The process by which a deceased person's property goes to the state if no heir can be found.
Escrow - Money paid into an account in the name of a third party which is then released once certain conditions have been fulfilled
Escrow Agent - the person appointed to look after the escrow account
Esquire - In the United States the title commonly appended after the name of an attorney. In English law a title of dignity next above gentleman and below knight. Title also given to barristers at law and others. Abbreviated: Esq.
Estate - A person's property.
Estate Tax - Generally, a tax on the privilege of transferring property to others after a person's death. In addition to federal estate taxes, many states have their own estate taxes.
Estoppel - An impediment that prevents a person from asserting or doing something contrary to his own previous assertion or act.
Estrogen - The female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for the release of eggs from the ovaries as well as for the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics.
Et al - An abbreviation of the Latin et alii, meaning "and others," ordinarily used in lieu of listing all names of persons involved in a proceeding.
Et seq - An abbreviation for the Latin et sequentes, meaning "and the following," ordinarily used in referring to a section of statutes.
Ether - An inhalant. Ether was one of the first anesthetics to be used in surgery, but has been replaced by more effective, safer anesthetics.
Ethical Practice Dilemmas - Situations in social work practice requiring that decisions be made under circumstances where core values of the profession are in conflict.
Ethics - Of or relating to moral action and conduct; professionally right; conforming to professional standards.
Ethnology - A science that concerns itself with the division of human beings into races and their origin, distribution, relations, and characteristics.
Etiology - The causes of, or factors related to, the development of a disorder.
Euphoria - Intense pleasure. Drug-induced euphoria is a "rush" or pleasurable feeling. It is caused by the release of the neurotransmitter, dopamine, within the brain reward system.
Euthymic - Mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.
Evidence - Documents, material items, or other proof that show a claim to be factual.
Evidence - Information presented in testimony or in documents that is used to persuade the fact finder (judge or jury) to decide the case for one side or the other.
Evidence-Based Practice - The systematic use of available empirical evidence to better inform and direct interventions and treatment methods to ensure their effectiveness.
Evolutionary Perspective - The approach to psychology that stresses the importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness, based on the assumption that mental capabilities evolved over millions of years to serve particular adaptive purposes.
Ex contractu - Arising from a contract.
Ex delicto - Arising from a wrong, breach of duty.
Ex parte - A proceeding brought before a court by one party only, without notice to or challenge by the other side.
Ex post facto - After the fact, ordinarily used in reference to constitutional prohibition on ex post facto laws. For example, a person cannot be punished for conduct committed before a criminal law was enacted.
Exceptions - Declarations by either side in a civil or criminal case reserving the right to appeal a judge's ruling upon a motion. Also, in regulatory cases, objections by either side to points made by the other side or to rulings by the agency or one of its hearing officers.
Excitatory Inputs - Information entering a neuron that signals it to fire.
Excitatory Neurotransmitter - A neurotransmitter that acts to elicit an action potential or make it more likely that one will be elicited.
Exclusion of Witnesses - An order of the court requiring all witnesses to remain outside the courtroom until each is called to testify, except the plaintiff or defendant. The witnesses are ordered not to discuss their testimony with each other and may be held in contempt if they violate the order.
Exclusionary Rule - The rule preventing illegally obtained evidence to be used in any trial.
Exculpatory Evidence - Evidence indicating that a defendant did not commit the crime.
Execute - To complete; to sign; to carry out according to its terms.
Executor - Person named in a will to dispense the estate
Executory Contracts - Contracts or leases under which both parties to the agreement have duties remaining to be performed. If a contract or lease is executory, a debtor may assume it (keep the contract) or reject it (terminate the contract).
Exempt Assets - Property that a debtor is allowed to retain, free from the claims of creditors who do not have liens on the property.
Exempt Property - All the property of a debtor which is not attachable under the Bankruptcy Code or the state statute.
Exhibit - A document or other item introduced as evidence during a trial or hearing.
Exonerate - Removal of a charge, responsibility, or duty.
Expansive Mood - Lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of one's significance or importance. irritable Easily annoyed and provoked to anger.
Expectancy Effects - Results that occur when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction.
Expectancy Theory - A cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance to result in desired outcomes.
Expedited Processes - Federal and state statutory requirement that support actions be processed within specified time parameters.
Experience-Sampling Method - An experimental method that assists researchers in describing the typical contents of consciousness; participants are asked to record what they are feeling and thinking whenever signaled to do so.
Experimental Methods - Research methodologies that involve the manipulation of independent variables in order to determine their effects on the dependent variables.
Expert Testimony - Testimony given in relation to some scientific, technical or professional matter by experts, i.e., person qualified to speak authoritatively by reason of their special training, skill or familiarity with the subject.
Explicit Memory - Memories derived from conscious learning, using our senses and attention to store information about what is in the world and where and when events have occurred.
Explicit Uses of Memory - Conscious efforts to recover information through memory processes.
Expungement - The process by which the record of criminal conviction is destroyed or sealed.
Extinction - In conditioning, the weakening of a conditioned association in the absence of a reinforcer or unconditioned stimulus.
Extradition - The surrender of an accused criminal by one state to the jurisdiction of another.
Extraordinary Writ - A writ, often issued by an appellate court, making available remedies not regularly within the powers of lower courts. They include writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition and quo warranto.
Extraversion - A state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self as opposed to inward toward the self, as in introversion.