Caffeine - A mild stimulant, the most widely used drug in the world.
Calendar - A list of cases scheduled for hearing in court.
Calling the Docket - The public calling of the docket or list of causes at commencement of term of court, for setting a time for trial or entering orders.
Cannabinoid Receptor - The receptor in the brain that recognizes THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. Marijuana exerts its psychoactive effects via this receptor.
Cannabis - The botanical name for the plant from which marijuana comes.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion - A theory stating that an "emotional stimulus produces two co-occurring reactions-arousal "and experience of emotion-that do not cause each other.
Canons of Ethics - Standards of ethical conduct for attorneys.
Capacity - Having legal authority or mental ability. Being of sound mind.
Capgras' Syndrome - The delusion that others, or the self, have been replaced by imposters. It typically follows the development of negative feelings toward the other person that the subject cannot accept and attributes, instead, to the imposter. The syndrome has been reported in paranoid schizophrenia and, even more frequently, in organic brain disease.
Capias - Warrant for arrest issued by a court.
Capillaries - The smallest blood vessels. Oxygen and nutrients leave the bloodstream through capillaries to get into the body. Gases from the alveoli enter the bloodstream through capillaries in the lungs.
Capital Crime - A crime punishable by death.
Capital Gain / Loss - the profit or loss, as the case may be, from the sale of an asset – such as your home. Ordinarily, but not always, capital gain will be taxed
Capital Offense - A crime punishable by death.
Caption - Heading or introductory party of a pleading.
Caretaker - The person responsible for a dependent child's health or welfare who has temporary or legal custody of the child.
Caretaker Parent - A father, mother, legal custodian, or guardian of a child, or another person who stands in loco parentis with respect to the child, and whose presence in the home is needed as the caretaker of the child.
Case Closure - Federally mandated reasons for an agency to close a case. Classification of a case as closed does not terminate the court order or the legal obligation to pay any outstanding arrears.
Case File - A complete collection of every document filed in court in a case.
Case Law - Law established by previous decisions of appellate courts, particularly the United States Supreme Court.
Case Management - A process by which resources and services are assessed and coordinated at both the client and systems levels, involving assessment for health and social services, coordination and planning, monitoring of service delivery, and advocacy for client rights and entitlements.
Case Plan - A document that is developed and maintained by a public children services agency or private child placing agency for certain children to whom the agency is providing services; identifies strengths of the family, concerns to be resolved, and supportive services to be provided that will result in ensuring permanence for the child.
Case Registry - The database of support orders being administered or otherwise handled by a child support enforcement agency; is maintained by the Department of Job and Family Services as part of the Support Enforcement Tracking System.
Case Study - Intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals.
Case Transfer - To move a case in its entirety to another Child Support Enforcement Agency.
Caseload - The number of cases handled by a judge or a court.
Cases - General term for an action, cause, suit, or controversy, at law or in equity; questions contested before a court of justice.
Cash Bond Order - an order requiring an obligor to enter into a cash bond in a sum of not less than $500 nor more than $10,000 to guarantee payment under a support order.
Catalepsy - Waxy flexibility--rigid maintenance of a body position over an extended period of time.
Cataplexy - Episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collapsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise.
Catatonic Behavior - Marked motor abnormalities including motoric immobility (i.e., catalepsy or stupor), certain types of excessive motor activity (apparently purposeless agitation not influenced by external stimuli), extreme negativism (apparent motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts to be moved) or mutism, posturing or stereotyped movements, and echolalia or echopraxia
Category One Offense - The commission by a juvenile offender of aggravated murder, murder, attempted aggravated murder, or attempted murder.
Category Two Offense - The commission by a juvenile offender of voluntary manslaughter, kidnapping, rape, aggravated arson, aggravated robbery, aggravated burglary, involuntary manslaughter that is a felony of the first degree, or felonious sexual penetration as that offense existed prior to September 3, 1996.
Catharsis - The healthful (therapeutic) release of ideas through "talking out" conscious material accompanied by an appropriate emotional reaction.
Cathexis - Attachment, conscious or unconscious, of emotional feeling and significance to an idea, an object, or, most commonly, a person.
Causalgia - A sensation of intense pain of either organic or psychological origin.
Cause - A lawsuit, litigation, or action. Any question, civil or criminal, litigated or contested before a court of justice.
Cause of Action - The reason/grounds on which the legal action is being submitted/brought
Cause of Action - The fact or facts which give a person a right to relief in court.
Caveat - A warning; a note of caution.
Caveat Emptor - Latin meaning “buyer beware”, this legal doctrine means that if you do not take due care when buying something, you cannot take your case before the courts
CCDBG - (Child Care Development Block Grant Act of 1990) A federal law that provides funds distributed by the Department of Job and Family Services for providers of publicly funded child care to supplement federal, state, and local funds available for publicly funded child care and related programs (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.; R.C. 5104.30(B), (C), and (D) and 5104.301)
CCPA - (Consumer Credit Protection Act) Federal law that limits the amount that may be withheld from earnings to satisfy child support obligations. Regardless of the number of withholding orders that have been served, the maximum that may be withheld for child support is: Without arrearage: 50% with a second family, 60% single; With arrearage: 55% with a second family and 12+ weeks in arrears, 65% single and 12+ weeks in arrears
Cease and Desist Order - An order of an administrative agency or court prohibiting a person or business from continuing a particular course of conduct.
Cell Body - The central structure of a neuron, which contains all of the molecular parts that keep the cell alive, generate new parts, and repair or destroy existing parts.
Cell Membrane - The outside covering, or "skin" or a cell. Receptors and ion channels are embedded in it.
Cellular Metabolism - The production of energy and new materials in a cell.
Censure - An official reprimand or condemnation of an attorney.
Central Nervous System - The brain and spinal cord.
Central Paternity Registry - A clearinghouse of birthing information obtained as a result of the establishment of a parent/child relationship on out-of-wedlock births in Ohio.
Centration - A thought pattern common during the beginning of the preoperational stage of cognitive development; characterized by the child's inability to take more than one perceptual factor into account at the same time.
Cerea Flexibilitas - The "waxy flexibility" often present in catatonic schizophrenia in which the patient's arm or leg remains in the position in which it is placed.
Cerebellum - The region of the brain attached to the brain stem that controls motor coordination, posture, and balance as well as the ability to learn control of body movements.
Cerebral Cortex - The outer surface of the cerebrum.
Cerebral Hemispheres - The two halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum.
Cerebrum - The region of the brain that regulates higher cognitive and emotional functions.
Certificate of Title - Document issued by Registrar of Titles for real estate registered under the Torrens System, which is considered conclusive evidence of the present ownership and state of the title to the property described therein.
Certification - A written attestation or an authorized declaration verifying that an instrument is a true and correct copy of the original.
Certified Copy - also known as “certified true copy”, this is a document signed as being a true copy of the original
Certify - to testify in writing
Certiorari - A writ of review issued by a higher court to a lower court. A means of getting an appellate court to review a lower court's decision. If an appellate court grants a writ of certiorari, it agrees to take the appeal. (Sometimes referred to as "granting cert.")
Challenge - An objection, such as when an attorney objects at a hearing to the seating of a particular person on a civil or criminal jury.
Challenge for Cause - A request from a party to a judge that a certain prospective juror not be allowed to be a member of a jury because of specified causes or reasons.
Chambers - The offices of a judge and his or her staff.
Change of Venue - Moving a lawsuit or criminal trial to another place for trial.
Chapter 11 - A reorganization bankruptcy, usually involving a corporation or partnership. A Chapter 11 debtor usually proposes a plan of reorganization to keep its business alive and pay creditors over time. Individuals or people in business can also seek relief in Chapter 11.
Chapter 12 - The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for adjustment of debts of a "family farmer" or "family fisherman," as the terms are defined in the Bankruptcy Code.
Chapter 13 - The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for the adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income, often referred to as a "wage-earner" plan. Chapter 13 allows a debtor to keep property and use his or her disposable income to pay debts over time, usually three to five years.
Chapter 13 Trustee - A person appointed to administer a Chapter 13 case. A Chapter 13 trustee's responsibilities are similar to those of a Chapter 7 trustee; however, a Chapter 13 trustee has the additional responsibilities of overseeing the debtor's plan, receiving payments from debtors, and disbursing plan payments to creditors.
Chapter 15 - The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code dealing with cases of cross-border insolvency.
Chapter 7 - The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for "liquidation," that is, the sale of a debtor's nonexempt property and the distribution of the proceeds to creditors. In order to be eligible for Chapter 7, the debtor must satisfy a "means test." The court will evaluate the debtor's income and expenses to determine if the debtor may proceed under Chapter 7.
Chapter 7 Trustee - A person appointed in a Chapter 7 case to represent the interests of the bankruptcy estate and the creditors. The trustee's responsibilities include reviewing the debtor's petition and schedules, liquidating the property of the estate, and making distributions to creditors. The trustee may also bring actions against creditors or the debtor to recover property of the bankruptcy estate.
Chapter 9 - The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for reorganization of municipalities (which includes cities and towns, as well as villages, counties, taxing districts, municipal utilities, and school districts).
Character Evidence - The testimony of witnesses who know the general character and reputation of a person in the community in which he or she lives. It may be considered by the jury in a dual respect: (1) as substantive evidence upon the theory that a person of good character and reputation is less likely to commit a crime than one who does not have a good character and reputation, and (2) as corroborative evidence in support of a witness's testimony as bearing upon credibility.
Charge to the Jury - The judge's instructions to the jury concerning the law that applies to the facts of the case on trial.
Chattel - An article of personal property.
Chief Judge - The judge who has primary responsibility for the administration of a court; chief judges are determined by seniority.
Child - Generally, a person who is under 18 years of age with specified exceptions relating to when a person commits an offense or delinquent act, when a person is apprehended for an offense or delinquent act, and whether a person has been tried in adult court.
Child Care - The administering to the needs of infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school children outside of school hours by persons other than their parents, guardians, custodians, or relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption for any part of the 24-hour day in a place or residence other than a child's own home.
Child Day Camp - A program for school children that operates no more than seven hours per day during one or more school vacation periods or for no more than 15 weeks during the summer and that operates outdoor activities for a minimum of 50% of each day that children attend or participate in the program.
Child Day-Care Center - A place in which child care or publicly funded child care is provided for 13 or more children at one time, or a place that is not the permanent residence of the licensee or administrator in which child care or publicly funded child care is provided for seven to twelve children at one time; is licensed by the Department of Job and Family Services.
Child Support - An amount of money under a court or administrative order that is due and owed by the non-custodial parent for the support of the parent's child(ren).
Child Support Order - An order for the support of a child that provides for monetary support, whether current or in arrears, health care, or reimbursements, and may include related costs and fees, interest, income withholding requirements, attorney fees, and other relief. “Child support order” includes orders under which the child has attained the age of majority under the law of the issuing state and arrearages are owed under the order.
Child Support Payment Central - (CSPC) The unit within the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, Office of Child Support, where all child support payments are processed.
Child Support Schedule - The statutory chart that is used to determine the child support obligation of parents based on the number of children and the combined gross income of the parents.
Child Welfare Adjudication - A determination made by a juvenile court after a hearing that determines whether a child is abused, neglected, or dependent or otherwise within the jurisdiction of the court .
Child-Directed Speech - A special form of speech with an exaggerated and high-pitched intonation that adults use to speak to infants and young children.
Children's Trust Fund - A fund that finances child abuse and child neglect prevention programs through: (1) fees for copies of birth records, certifications of birth, death records, and divorce or dissolution filings, (2) gifts, and (3) federal funds.
China White - A designer drug" that was an opiate derivative. Some batches contained a neurotoxin called MPTP, which killed neurons that make dopamine, producing symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease.
Chip - To use drugs in a non-addictive manner.
Chipper - A non-addicted, casual drug user.
Cholinergic - The adjective derived from acetylcholine. A neuron that contains acetylcholine is a cholinergic neuron.
Chronic Stress - A continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them.
Chronological - Arranged in the order in which events happened; according to date.
Chronological Age - The number of months or years since an individual's birth.
Chunking - The process of taking single items of information and recoding them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle.
Circadian Rhythm - A consistent pattern of cyclical body activities, usually lasting 24 to 25 hours and determined by an internal biological clock.
Circuits - A group of cortical fields or nuclei that are linked together by their axons to perform a specific brain function. Core components or circuits are constantly in touch with each other, whereas other components can be brought in as the need arises.
Circumstantial Evidence - All evidence except eyewitness testimony. One example is physical evidence, such as fingerprints, from which an inference can be drawn.
Circumstantiality - Pattern of speech that is indirect and delayed in reaching its goal because of excessive or irrelevant detail or parenthetical remarks. The speaker does not lose the point, as is characteristic of loosening of associations, and clauses remain logically connected, but to the listener it seems that the end will never be reached.
Cirrhosis - Chronic destruction of the liver.
Citation - A writ or order issued by a court commanding the person named therein to appear at the time and place named; also the written reference to legal authorities, precedents, reported cases, etc., in briefs or other legal documents.
Citators - A set of books which provides the subsequent history of reported decisions through a form of abbreviations or words.
Civil - Relating to private rights and remedies sought by civil actions as contrasted with criminal proceedings.
Civil Action - An action brought to enforce or protect private rights.
Civil Law - Law based on a series of written codes or laws.
Civil Procedure - The rules and process by which a civil case is tried and appealed, including the preparations for trial, the rules of evidence and trial conduct, and the procedure for pursuing appeals.
Claim - A creditor's assertion of a right to payment from a debtor or the debtor's property.
Clanging - A type of thinking in which the sound of a word, rather than its meaning, gives the direction to subsequent associations.
Class Action Lawsuit - A lawsuit brought by one or more persons on behalf of a larger group.
Classical Conditioning - The form of implicit, unconscious learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a significant stimulus through repeated pairing of the two.
Clayton Act - A federal law which is an amendment to the Sherman Act dealing with antitrust regulations and unfair trade practices.
Clean Air Acts - Federal and state environmental statutes enacted to regulate and control air pollution.
Clear and Convincing Evidence - Standard of proof commonly used in civil lawsuits and in regulatory agency cases. It governs the amount of proof that must be offered in order for the plaintiff to win the case.
Clemency or Executive Clemency - Act of grace or mercy by the president or governor to ease the consequences of a criminal act, accusation, or conviction. (Sometimes known as commutation or pardon.)
Clerk of Court - The court officer who oversees administrative functions, especially managing the flow of cases through the court. The clerk's office is often called a court's central nervous system.
Client - The term used by clinicians who think of psychological disorders as problems in living, and not as mental illnesses, to describe those being treated.
Client-Centered Therapy - A humanistic approach to treatment that emphasizes the healthy psychological growth of the individual; based on the assumption that all people share the basic tendency of human nature toward self-actualization.
Climacteric - Menopausal period in women. Sometimes used to refer to the corresponding age period in men. Also called involutional period.
Clinical Ecology - A field of psychology that relates disorders such as anxiety and depression to environmental irritants and sources of trauma.
Clinical Psychologist - An individual who has earned a doctorate in psychology and whose training is in the assessment and treatment of psychological problems.
Clinical Social Work - A specialized form of direct social work practice requiring at least two years of post-graduate supervision, in which the goal of improving the bio-psycho-social functioning of clients is achieved using a person-in-environment perspective, through application of practice models and techniques informed by the practitioners’ broad knowledge base (i.e., a comprehensive understanding of multiple theories and interventions, professional values and ethics, and clinical methods).
Clinical Social Worker - A mental health professional whose specialized training prepares him or her to consider the social context of people's problems.
Clonidine - A blood pressure medication that is highly effective at modulating opiate withdrawal symptoms.
Closing Argument - The closing statement, by counsel, to the trier of facts after all parties have concluded their presentation of evidence.
Closure - A perceptual organizing process that leads individuals to see incomplete figures as complete.
CNS - Central Nervous System: the brain and spinal cord.
Cocaine - A highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the cocoa plant that produces profound feelings of pleasure. See Crack.
Cochlea - The primary organ of hearing; a fluid-filled coiled tube located in the inner ear.
Cocktail - A mixture of different drugs taken at once.
Code of Ethics - NASW publication that directs the professional conduct of social workers. The Code identifies core values and establishes ethical principles and standards that guide social workers’ decision making and conduct when ethical dilemmas arise.
Code of Federal Regulations - An annual publication which contains the cumulative executive agency regulations.
Code of Professional Conduct - The rules of conduct that govern the legal profession.
Codeine - A natural opioid compound that is a relatively weak, but still effective, opiate analgesic. It has also been used to treat other problems (e.g., to relieve coughing).
Codicil - An amendment to a will.
Cognition - Processes of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning; also the content of the processes, such as concepts and memories.
Cognitive - Pertaining to thoughts or thinking. Cognitive disorders are disorders of thinking, for example, schizophrenia.
Cognitive Appraisal - With respect to emotions, the process through which physiological arousal is interpreted with respect to circumstances in the particular setting in which it is being experienced; also, the recognition and evaluation of a stressor to assess the demand, the size of the threat, the resources available for dealing with it, and appropriate coping strategies.
Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion - A theory stating that the experience of emotion is the joint effect of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal, which serves to determine how an ambiguous inner state of arousal will be labeled.
Cognitive Behavior Modification - A therapeutic approach that combines the cognitive emphasis on the role of thoughts and attitudes influencing motivations and response with the behavioral emphasis on changing performance through modification of reinforcement contingencies.
Cognitive Development - The development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving.
Cognitive Dissonance - The theory that the tension-producing effects of incongruous cognitions motivate individuals to reduce such tension.
Cognitive Functions - Higher brain functions involving the manipulation of information from the senses and from memory. They often require awareness and judgment, and they enable us to know and to analyze problems and plan solutions - in short, to think.
Cognitive Map - A mental representation of physical space.
Cognitive Perspective - The perspective on psychology that stresses human thought and the processes of knowing, such as attending, thinking, remembering, expecting, solving problems, fantasizing, and consciousness.
Cognitive Processes - Higher mental processes, such as perception, memory, language, problem solving, and abstract thinking.
Cognitive Psychology - The study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking.
Cognitive Science - The interdisciplinary field of study of the approach systems and processes that manipulate information.
Cognitive Therapy - A type of psychotherapeutic treatment that attempts to change feelings and behaviors by changing the way a client thinks about or perceives significant life experiences.
Cold Turkey - to detox off of heroin abruptly without medication.
Collate - To arrange in order; verify arrangement of pages before binding or fastening; put together.
Collateral - Property that is promised as security for the satisfaction of a debt.
Collective Mark - Trademark or service mark used by members of a cooperative, an association, or other collective group or organization.
Collective Unconscious - The part of an individual's unconscious that is inherited, evolutionarily developed, and common to all members of the species.
Commit - To send a person to prison, asylum, or reformatory by a court order.
Common Knowledge - Knowledge that everyone has and never questions, but which is usually wrong. Example: "It is common knowledge that heroin is the most dangerous drug." - Connection - dealer.
Common Law - The legal system that originated in England and is now in use in the United States, which relies on the articulation of legal principles in a historical succession of judicial decisions. Common law principles can be changed by legislation.
Community Development - A method by which social workers assist community members in resource development and network promotion to encourage growth of the community as a source of social, economic, political, and cultural support to its people.
Community Service - A special condition the court imposes that requires an individual to work – without pay – for a civic or nonprofit organization.
Commutation - The reduction of a sentence, as from death to life imprisonment.
Comorbidity - The experience of more than one disorder at the same time.
Companionship and Visitation Rights - the right to have continuing contact with a child that may be granted to grandparents, relatives, and other interested persons in cases in which married parents terminate their marriage or separate, when the parents are not married, or when a parent dies.
Comparative Fault - A rule in admiralty law where each vessel involved in a collision is required to pay a share of the total damages in proportion to its percentage of fault.
Comparative Negligence - The rule under which negligence is measured by percentage, and damages are diminished in proportion to the amount of negligence attributable to the person seeking recovery.
Compensation - A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which one attempts to make up for real or fancied deficiencies. Also a conscious process in which one strives to make up for real or imagined defects of physique, performance skills, or psychological attributes. The two types frequently merge. See also overcompensation.
Competency - A witness's ability to observe, recall and recount under other what happened. Criminal defendants must also be competent to stand trial; they must understand the nature of the proceedings and have the ability to assist their lawyers.
Complainant - The party who complains or sues; one who applies to the court for legal redress.
Complaint - A written statement that begins a civil lawsuit, in which the plaintiff details the claims against the defendant.
Complementary Colors - Colors opposite each other on the color circle; when additively mixed, they create the sensation of white light.
Compliance - A change in behavior consistent with a communication source's direct requests.
Compulsion - The behavioural component of an obsession. The individual feels compelled to repeat a behaviour which has no immediate benefit beyond reducing the anxiety associated with the obsessional idea. For instance for a person obsessed by the idea that they are dirty, repeated ritual handwashing may serve to reduce anxiety.
Conative - Pertains to one's basic strivings as expressed in behavior and actions
Concepts - Mental representations of kinds or categories of items or ideas.
Conciliation - A form of alternative dispute resolution in which the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps lower tensions, improve communications, and explore possible solutions. Conciliation is similar to mediation, but is may be less formal.
Concrete Thinking - Thinking characterized by immediate experience, rather than abstractions. It may occur as a primary, developmental defect, or it may develop secondary to organic brain disease or schizophrenia.
Concurrent Jurisdiction - The jurisdiction of two or more courts, each authorized to deal with the same subject matter.
Concurrent Planning - planning that permits a public children services agency or private child placing agency to work towards reunifying a child with the parents while planning for a permanent family placement if reunification is not achieved.
Concurrent Sentences - Sentences for more than one crime that are to be served at the same time, rather than one after the other.
Condemnation - The legal process by which the government takes private land for public use, paying the owners a fair price.
Condensation - A psychological process, often present in dreams, in which two or more concepts are fused so that a single symbol represents the multiple components.
Condition - Are circumstances which are essential to the ascertain of a right; for example, it may be a condition to a loan that you give security, without giving security, you do not have the right to the loan
Conditional Release - A release from custody which imposes regulations on the activities and associations of the defendant. If a defendant fails to meet the conditions, the release is revoked.
Conditioned Reinforcers - In classical conditioning, formerly neutral stimuli that have become reinforcers.
Conditioned Response - (CR) In classical conditioning, a response elicited by some previously neutral stimulus that occurs as a result of pairing the neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus - (CS) In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response.
Conditioning - The ways in which events, stimuli, and behavior become associated with one another.
Cones - Photoreceptors concentrated in the center of the retina that are responsible for visual experience under normal viewing conditions and for all experiences of color.
Confabulation - Fabrication of stories in response to questions about situations or events that are not recalled.
Confidentiality - Confidentiality refers to the protection of clients’ private information unless the client has given valid, informed consent for disclosure of said information. The expectation that information will be kept confidential does not apply when professional disclosure is necessary to prevent foreseeable, immediate, and serious harm to the client or to another identifiable individual.
Confirmation - Approval of a plan of reorganization by a bankruptcy judge.
Conflict of Interest - Means that you have competing interests in something that would make it difficult or impossible for you to fulfill your duty impartially
Conformed Copy - An exact copy of a document on which has been written things that could not or were not copied, i.e., a written signature is replaced on the conformed copy with a notation that it was signed by the parties.
Conformity - The tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, and values of other members of a reference group.
Confounding Variable - A stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces into a research setting that affects a participant's behavior.
Confrontation - A communication that deliberately pressures or invites another to self-examine some aspect of behavior in which there is a discrepancy between self-reported and observed behavior.
Consciousness - A state of awareness of internal events and of the external environment.
Consecutive Sentences - Successive sentences, one beginning at the expiration of another, imposed against a person convicted of two or more violations.
Consensual Validation - The mutual affirmation of conscious views of reality.
Consent - Agreement; voluntary acceptance of the wish of another.
Conservation - According to Piaget, the understanding that physical properties do not change when nothing is added or taken away, even though appearances may change.
Conservatorship - Legal right given to a person to manage the property and financial affairs of a person deemed incapable of doing that for himself or herself.
Consideration - In legal terms, this is the thing (usually money) which you pay, under a contract, in exchange for getting something else
Consistency Paradox - The observation that personality ratings across time and among different observers are consistent, while behavior ratings across situations are not consistent.
Conspiracy - A combination of two or more persons formed for the purpose of committing by joint collaboration some unlawful act.
Constitution - The fundamental law of a nation or state which establishes the character and basic principles of the government.
Constitutional Law - Law set forth in the Constitution of the United States and the state constitutions.
Constricted Affect - Affect type that represents mild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression.
Constructional Apraxia - An acquired difficulty in drawing two-dimensional objects or forms, or in producing or copying three-dimensional arrangements of forms or shapes.
Consumer Bankruptcy - A bankruptcy case filed to reduce or eliminate debts that are primarily consumer debts.
Consumer Debts - Debts incurred for personal, as opposed to business, needs.
Contact Comfort - Comfort derived from an infant's physical contact with the mother or caregiver.
Contact Hypothesis - The idea that direct contact between hostile groups alone will reduce prejudice.
Contempt of Court - Willful disobedience of a judge's command or of an official court order.
Context of Discovery - The initial phase of research, in which observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon.
Context of Justification - The research phase in which evidence is brought to bear on hypotheses.
Contextual Distinctiveness - The assumption that the serial position effect can be altered by the context and the distinctiveness of the experience being recalled.
Contingency Management - A general treatment strategy involving changing behavior by modifying its consequences.
Contingency Reinforcement - In operant or instrumental conditioning, ensuring that desired behavior is followed by positive consequences and that undesired behavior is not rewarded.
Contingent Claim - A claim that may be owed by the debtor under certain circumstances, e.g., where the debtor is a cosigner on another person's loan and that person fails to pay.
Continuance - Postponement of a legal proceeding to a later date.
Continuing Exclusive Jurisdiction - When a tribunal enters a valid support order, it is the only jurisdiction with authority to modify its order so long as either the obligor, the individual obligee or the child remain in the state.
Continuing Jurisdiction - A tribunal which enters a valid support order (that is had personal jurisdiction over the parties and subject matter jurisdiction over the issue) continues to have jurisdiction to enforce it – even if the obligor, the individual obligee and the child have left the state.
Contract - An agreement between two or more persons which creates an obligation to do or not to do a particular thing.
Contributory Negligence - The rule of law under which an act or omission of plaintiff is a contributing cause of injury and a bar to recovery.
Control Procedures - Consistent procedures for giving instructions, scoring responses, and holding all other variables constant except those being systematically varied.
Controlled Processes - Processes that require attention; it is often difficult to carry out more than one controlled process at a time.
Convergence - The degree to which the eyes turn inward to fixate on an object.
Conversion - A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which intrapsychic conflicts that would otherwise give rise to anxiety are instead given symbolic external expression. The repressed ideas or impulses, and the psychological defenses against them, are converted into a variety of somatic symptoms. These may include such symptoms as paralysis, pain, or loss of sensory function.
Conversion Symptom - A loss of, or alteration in, voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting a neurological or general medical condition. Psychological factors are judged to be associated with the development of the symptom, and the symptom is not fully explained by a neurological or general medical condition or the direct effects of a substance. The symptom is not intentionally produced or feigned and is not culturally sanctioned.
Conveyance - Instrument transferring title of land for one person or group of persons to another.
Conviction - A judgment of guilt against a criminal defendant.
Cooker - Spoon or other device used to cook heroin for injection.
Cooperation - The custodial parent must provide, as a condition of receiving public assistance benefits, sufficient information to identify a child's father and/or establish, modify and enforce a support order, inclusive of submitting to genetic testing and appearing at paternity and child support proceedings.
Coping - The process of dealing with internal or external demands that are perceived to be threatening or overwhelming.
Coping Mechanisms - Ways of adjusting to environmental stress without altering one's goals or purposes; includes both conscious and unconscious mechanisms.
Coprophagia - Eating of filth or feces.
Core Foundation Courses - Accredited courses providing essential knowledge and skills needed for beginning and advanced study in the social work field, minimally including: values and ethics, diversity, populations-at-risk and social and economic justice, human behavior and the social environment, social welfare policy and services, social work practice, research, and field education.
Core Social Work Values - The framework for the social work profession, consisting of: a commitment to service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, self- determination, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence.
Corpus Callosum - The mass of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum.
Corpus Delicti - The body (material substance) upon which a crime has been committee, e.g., the corpse of a murdered man or the charred remains of a house burned by an arsonist.
Correlation Coefficient - (r) A statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables.
Correlational Methods - Research methodologies that determine to what extent two variables, traits, or attributes are related.
Corroborating Evidence - Supplementary evidence that tends to strengthen or confirm the initial evidence.
Cortical Field - A large aggregation of millions of nerve cells in a circumscribed region of the cerebral cortex, which together carry out a specific function, receive connections from the same places, and have a common structural arrangement. There are many dozens of such fields in the cerebral cortex. Elsewhere in the brain such groups are called nuclei.
Costs - An allowance for expenses in prosecuting or defending a suit. Ordinarily this does not include attorney fees.
Counsel - Legal advice; a term also used to refer to the lawyers in a case.
Counseling Psychologist - Psychologist who specializes in providing guidance in areas such as vocational selection, school problems, drug abuse, and marital conflict.
Count - An allegation in an indictment or information, charging a defendant with a crime. An indictment or information may contain allegations that the defendant committed more than one crime. Each allegation is referred to as a count.
Countable Income - The amount of income that an applicant for or recipient of a welfare program has after disregards are applied and that is used to determine the applicant's or recipient's eligibility or continued eligibility
Counterclaim - A claim made by the defendant in a civil lawsuit against the plaintiff. In essence, a counter lawsuit within a lawsuit.
Counterconditioning - A technique used in therapy to substitute a new response for a maladaptive one by means of conditioning procedures.
Counterphobia - Deliberately seeking out and exposing onself to, rather than avoiding, the object or situation that is consciously or unconsciously feared.
Countertransference - Circumstances in which a psychoanalyst develops personal feelings about a client because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist's life.
Countertransference - The therapist's emotional reactions to the patient that are based on the therapist's unconscious needs and conflicts, as distinguished from his or her conscious responses to the patient's behavior. Countertransference may interfere with the therapist's ability to understand the patient and may adversely affect the therapeutic technique.
County Family and Children First Council - a multidisciplinary group established by each county that is intended to streamline and coordinate government services for families seeking assistance for their children; can refer cases to the Ohio Family and Children First Cabinet Council.
County Family Services Planning Committee - A county-level entity that serves as an advisory body to the board of county commissioners with regard to family services provided in the county.
Court - A body in government to which the administration of justice is delegated.
Court Costs - The expenses of prosecuting or defending a lawsuit, other than the attorney fees. An amount of money may be awarded to the successful party (and may be recoverable from the losing party) as reimbursement for court costs.
Court of Original Jurisdiction - A court where a matter is initiated and heard in the first instance; a trial court.
Court of Record - A court in which the proceedings are recorded, transcribed, and maintained as permanent records.
Court Reporter - A person who transcribes by shorthand or stenographically takes down testimony during court proceedings, a deposition, or other trial-related proceeding.
Court Rules - Regulations governing practice and procedure in the various courts.
Court-Appointed Attorney - Attorney appointed by the court to represent a defendant, usually with respect to criminal charges and without the defendant having to pay for the representation.
Covariation Principle - A theory that suggests that people attribute a behavior to a causal factor if that factor was present whenever the behavior occurred but was absent whenever it did not occur.
Crack - A chemically altered form of cocaine that is smoked.
Craving - Hunger for drugs. It is caused by drug-induced changes that occur in the brain with the development of addiction and arises from a need of the brain to maintain a state of homeostasis that includes the presence of the drug.
Creativity - The ability to generate ideas or products that are both novel and appropriate to the circumstances.
Credit Reporting Agency - Any agency, which tracks financial obligations of individuals or a company and used by banks, merchants, suppliers, etc. for the purpose of evaluating credit risk.
Creditor - A person to whom a debt is owed by another.
Crime - An act in violation of the penal laws of a state or the United States. A positive or negative act in violation of penal law.
Criminal Insanity - Lack of mental capacity to do or abstain from doing a particular act; inability to distinguish right from wrong.
Criminal Justice System - The network of courts and tribunals which deal with criminal law and its enforcement.
Criminal Non Support - Non-custodial parents who willfully refuse to pay court-ordered child support can be charged with the crime of Criminal Non Support and be and prosecuted. They must meet established criteria and the decision to prosecute is made by the County or Federal Prosecuting Attorney.
Criminal Summons - An order commanding an accused to appear in court.
Criterion Validity - The degree to which test scores indicate a result on a specific measure that is consistent with some other criterion of the characteristic being assessed; also known as predictive validity.
Critical Thinking - Assessing, analyzing, appraising, and evaluating a situation, issue, or idea, by challenging underlying assumptions, considering multiple perspectives, and applying reason, judgment, and knowledge, to make an informed decision about it; process requires objectivity, intelligent skepticism, open-mindedness, persistence, and decisiveness.
Cross-Claim - A pleading which asserts a claim arising out of the same subject action as the original complaint against a co-party, i.e., one co-defendant cross claims against another co-defendant for contribution for any damages assessed against him.
Cross-Examination - The questioning of a witness produced by the other side.
Cross-Sectional Design - A research method in which groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time.
Crystallized Intelligence - The facet of intelligence involving the knowledge a person has already acquired and the ability to access that knowledge; measures by vocabulary, arithmetic, and general information tests.
CSEA - (Child Support Enforcement Agency) Ohio county agencies responsible for child support enforcement at the local level.
Cues - Formerly neutral stimuli that acquire the ability to elicit drug-craving through classical condition. Cues are also called triggers.
Cultural Competence - One of social work’s core ethical responsibilities to clients. It refers to a social worker’s responsibilities in understanding the relationship between culture and personal identity, recognizing the uniqueness and strengths within varying cultures, and experiencing and studying cultural and ethnic diversity.
Cultural Perspective - The psychological perspective that focuses on cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.
Culture-Specific Syndromes - Forms of disturbed behavior specific to certain cultural systems that do not conform to western nosologic entities. Some commonly cited syndromes are the following: amok; koro; latah; piblokto, and windigo.
Cumulative Sentences - Sentences for two or more crimes to run consecutively, rather than concurrently.
Current Assistance Case - A case where the children are recipients of benefits under Ohio Works First, Medicaid or entitled to foster care maintenance payments; the support rights have been assigned to a state, and a referral to the IV-D agency for child support, spousal support or medical support has been made.
Current Support - The amount of a support the non-custodial parent is ordered under an administrative or court order to pay during the current month to fulfill the current month's support obligation.
Custodial Parent - The child's legal caretaker who has custody of the children and may be entitled to receive child support payments on behalf of the children. Also referred to as residential parent or obligee.
Custodian - A person who has legal custody of a child or a public children services agency or private child placing agency that has permanent, temporary, or legal custody of a child.
Custody - Detaining of a person by lawful process or authority to assure his or her appearance to any hearing; the jailing or imprisonment of a person convicted of a crime.
Custody - Legal determination by a court that establishes with whom the child shall live.
Cut - The act of diluting a drug. Also the substance with which a drug is diluted.
Cutaneous Senses - The skin senses that register sensations of pressure, warmth, and cold.
Cyclazocine - A narcotic antagonist.
Cyclothymia - A variability of mood over days or weeks, cycling from positive to negative mood states. The variability is not as severe in amplitude or duration as to be classified as a major affective disorder.